Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been used to extract information from various datasets of different dimensions. This approach has led to accurate interpretations in several subfields of biological research, like pharmacogenomics, addressing issues previously faced by other computational methods. With the rising attention for personalized and precision medicine, scientists and clinicians have now turned to artificial intelligence systems to provide them with solutions for therapeutics development. CNNs have already provided valuable insights into biological data transformation. Due to the rise of interest in precision and personalized medicine, in this review, we have provided a brief overview of the possibilities of implementing CNNs as an effective tool for analyzing one-dimensional biological data, such as nucleotide and protein sequences, as well as small molecular data, e.g., simplified molecular-input line-entry specification, InChI, binary fingerprints, etc., to categorize the models based on their objective and also highlight various challenges. The review is organized into specific research domains that participate in pharmacogenomics for a more comprehensive understanding. Furthermore, the future intentions of deep learning are outlined.