Physicochemical properties, drug likeness, ADMET, DFT studies, and in vitro antioxidant activity of oxindole derivatives

Imad Ahmad, Haroon Khan, Goncagül Serdaroğlu

Drug Design Published: (Mar/2023)

Poor pharmacokinetic and safety profiles create significant hurdles in the drug development process. This work focuses on a detailed understanding of drug discovery interplay among physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, toxicity endpoints, and antioxidant properties of oxindole derivatives. DFT compıutations were also performed at B3LYP/6-311G** level to evaluate the physicochemical properties, global reactivity features, and intramolecular interactions. The BOILED-Egg pharmacokinetic model envisaged gastrointestinal absorption, blood-brain barrier penetration, and no interaction with p-glycoprotein for compounds C1 and C2. The physicochemical evaluation revealed that C1 possesses superior drug-like properties fit for oral absorption. Both derivatives were predicted to have high plasma protein binding, efficient distribution, and inhibiting CYP 450 major isoforms but serve as substrates only for a few of them. Both molecules have mild to moderate clearance rates. Out of ten toxicity parameters, only hepatotoxicity was predicted. DFT results implied that the meta position of the -OH group made the possibility of charge transfer greater than -para positioned -OH, due to the ΔNmax (eV) values of molecules C1 and C2 being calculated at 2.596 and 2.477, respectively. Both C1 and C2 exhibited a concentration dependant DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The chemical structure-physicochemical-pharmacokinetic relationship identified the meta position as the favorite for the electron-withdrawing hydroxyl group. This provides useful insight to medicinal chemists to design 6-chlorooxindole derivatives with an acceptable drug-like and pharmacokinetic property.